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High TG Rigid PCB

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OVERVIEW

Item Rigid PCB
Max Layer 60L
Inner Layer Min Trace/Space 3/3mil
Out Layer Min Trace/Space 3/3mil
Inner Layer Max Copper 6oz
Out Layer Max Copper 6oz
Min Mechanical Drilling 0.15mm
Min Laser Drilling 0.1mm
Aspect Ratio(Mechanical Drilling) 20:1
Aspect Ratio(Laser Drilling) 1:1
Press Fit Hole Ttolerance ±0.05mm
PTH Tolerance ±0.075mm
NPTH Tolerance ±0.05mm
Countersink Tolerance ±0.15mm
Board Thickness 0.4-8mm
Board Thickness Tolerance(<1.0mm) ±0.1mm
Board Thickness Tolerance(≥1.0mm) ±10%
Impedance Tolerance Single-Ended:±5Ω(≤50Ω),±7%(>50Ω)
Differential:±5Ω(≤50Ω),±7%(>50Ω)
Min Board Size 10*10mm
Max Board Size 22.5*30inch
Contour Tolerance ±0.1mm
Min BGA 7mil
Min SMT 7*10mil
Surface Treatment ENIG,Gold Finger,Immersion Silver,Immersion Tin,HASL(LF),OSP,ENEPIG,Flash Gold;Hard gold plating
Solder Mask Green,Black,Blue,Red,Matt Green
Min Solder Mask Clearance 1.5mil
Min Solder Mask Dam 3mil
Legend White,Black,Red,Yellow
Min Legend Width/Height 4/23mil
Strain Fillet Width /
Bow & Twist 0.3%
Table of Contents
Primary Item (H2)

Technological advancements have propelled the need for circuit boards with high glass transition temperature (Tg). Tg is nothing but a key property of the materials used in circuit boards, like epoxy or fiberglass. Based on the material used, each PCB board has a unique Tg. However, when a board's operating temperature exceeds its Tg, it can get damaged, compromising its performance. 

This is where high TG boards come in. We will discuss High Tg rigid PCBs in more detail in this article, along with their advantages and applications in the electronics industry. Let's talk about Tg first before proceeding further. 

What is Tg?

Tg' stands for Glass Transition temperature. It is the point at which the material transitions from a rigid, glassy state to a softer, rubbery one. 

A high Tg PCB is a type of Printed Circuit Board made to handle super high temperatures. 

While regular PCBs have a glass transition temperature (Tg) ranging from 130°C to 140°C, high-Tg PCBs have a Tg exceeding 170°C. This basically means they can stay strong, keep their shape, and retain their electrical performance even when things get really hot. Each type of PCB material has its own Glass Transition temperature value based on the substrate. 

If the Tg value is higher, it means the epoxy is more flexible and has better tensile strength. A lower Tg value means you'll encounter fewer problems with welding and coating defects.

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What are High Tg Rigid PCBs?

High Tg rigid PCBs are PCBs made up of materials that combine high dimensional stability (rigidity) with a high glass transition temperature (Tg). This makes them ideal for applications where both mechanical strength and heat resistance are crucial.

They are available in different types – single-layer, double-layer, or multilayer and can be used in all sorts of setups. An example of multi layer boards is complex electronic circuits.  

Significance of Tg in High Tg Rigid PCBs

When the temperature surpasses the Tg (glass transition temperature) in high Tg rigid PCBs, the material undergoes a significant change in its physical and electrical properties. Here's what happens:

  • Low dimensional accuracy: As the board warps, it loses its precise dimensions. This can lead to misalignment of components and further malfunction.
  • WrappingWarpping of boards: Take an example of a circuit board in a high-powered device like an industrial motor controller. If the operating temperature exceeds the board's Tg, it can warp and bend, potentially causing short circuits and component failure.
  • Low electrical performance: The softening of the material can impact the electrical properties of the circuit, leading to signal integrity issues and data transmission errors.
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Materials used in High Tg Rigid PCB

These are some materials used in making strong Rigid PCBs with high Tg levels.

Bismaleimide Triazines (BT)

These resins are used to prepare multilayer PCB boards. An advanced high-tech circuit board material, BT PCB or Bismaleimide Triazine Printed Circuit  is prepared by layering glass fibers and a special high-temperature resin called Bismaleimide Triazine (BT). The high Tg range of BT is 240°C - 300°C.

It is also used in military and aerospace electronics, high-speed data communication systems, and automotive electronics due to its thermal stability, dimensional stability, and high dielectric strength.

Polyimides

The word "Polyimide" is a mix of two terms – "poly" for polymers and "imide" for "progressive imide monomers." These polymers are formed through either synthetic or natural processes. The polymer materials are mainly synthetic when it comes to printed circuit boards or PCBs. Various chemicals with amide bonds play a role in creating the synthetic polyimides needed for PCB manufacturing. The High Tg range of Polyimides is 250°C - 400°C.

Polyimides are used in military and aerospace electronics due to their exceptional reliability, thermal stability, and flexibility.

PPS (Polyphenylene Sulfide)

A type of engineering plastic, polyphenylene sulfide is widely used as a high-performance thermoplastic. You can shape, extrude, or machine PPS to precise specifications. When it's in its solid form, it may appear either opaque white or light tan. The High Tg range of PPS is 170°C - 220°C.

Polyphenylene sulfide is used in the automotive industry for structural components, such as engine parts, transmission parts, and drivetrain components, due to its high strength, stiffness, and electrical insulation.

Epoxy resins

PCB epoxy resin, is a special kind of plastic that hardens when heated and is frequently employed in making Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs). This epoxy resin for PCBs is created by combining two elements: the resin itself and a substance called the hardener. The high Tg range of epoxy resins is 170°C - 220°C.

Epoxy resins are used in aerospace components and structural composites due to excellent mechanical strength, chemical resistance, and electrical insulation.

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Applications of High TG Rigid PCB

Here's a closer look at their applications in various industries:

Telecommunications

High TG rigid PCBs manage the high power and heat generated in telecommunication base stations. This ensures reliable signal transmission for mobile networks. They also ensure the smooth operation of network switches, routers, and other equipment in data centers while handling high voltages and currents. Furthermore, their ability to maintain signal integrity at high frequencies makes them ideal for microwave and RF applications like radar systems and satellite communication equipment.

Down Hole Drilling

To handle the extreme temperatures and pressures encountered in deep oil and gas wells, high Tg rigid PCBs are just perfect. This makes them ideal for precise control of drilling direction, thus preventing costly mistakes. They can withstand the harsh downhole environment while providing accurate data on formation properties, wellbore integrity, and fluid flow. Above all, their heat and vibration resistance ensures the reliable operation of critical downhole equipment, minimizing downtime and maximizing drilling efficiency.

Aerospace

Extreme temperature fluctuations and harsh radiation are encountered in space. High TG Rigid PCB can ensure the functionality of satellite communication and navigation systems. They maintain reliable operation of flight control, navigation, and communication systems in aircraft, even under demanding conditions. They can also handle high currents and voltages in aircraft power systems, thus ascertaining stable and efficient operation of electrical equipment.

Defense and Military

In the military and defense world, electronic devices need to be super reliable and handle extreme temperatures. High TG PCBs combat the heat generated by high-powered radar systems and maintain signal integrity for accurate target detection and tracking. They ensure the reliable operation of navigation and guidance systems in military vehicles, aircraft, and weapons systems. Their ability to handle harsh environments and maintain signal integrity makes them crucial for secure military communication systems such as wireless base stations, fiber optic communication devices, and network equipment.

Automotive

When it comes to car electronics, high Tg PCBs play a crucial role. They are found in on-board computers, engine control units (ECUs), sensors, dashboards, and other vital systems. Since the inside of a car can go through significant temperature swings, circuit boards that can take the heat and handle thermal stress are just perfect.

Key Advantages of High Tg Rigid PCBs

There are several benefits of high Tg rigid PCBs over standard FR-4 boards make. Here are some of them.

Improvement in Temperature Resistance

As compared to 130-150°C for standard FR-4, high Tg PCBs have a Tg exceeding 180°C. This means they can handle higher operating temperatures without warping, softening, or experiencing electrical failures. 

Vibration Resistance

Some environments are prone to vibrations, making High Tg rigid PCBs valuable in applications such as in industrial machinery, automotive electronics, and even aerospace. This is mainly due to the careful layout and material selection that can minimize crosstalk and signal integrity issues caused by vibrations, ensuring reliable data transmission. 

Better stability

In addressing moisture and heat challenges, PCBs with higher Tg levels work better. So, when you're dealing with tight spaces, putting a regular PCB is risky. It can get too hot and might even cause a meltdown. To avoid these extreme situations, using a high Tg PCB substrate is a safer bet. The improved chemical resistance adds an extra layer of safety to the circuit board. 

Thermal stress resistance

These PCBs can handle being heated and cooled many times without getting damaged. It also doesn't expand and contract much with temperature changes, keeping circuits stable. That's why it's great for things that go through quick temperature shifts.

Higher Chemical Resistance 

High Tg materials usually use special epoxy resins or strong polymers that can resist a wider range of chemicals compared to the standard FR-4 material with its brominated epoxy resin. These materials have a denser structure, which means they don't let corrosive liquids seep in easily. This helps protect copper traces and internal parts from damage. Also, these High Tg materials release fewer chemical byproducts, making sure nearby liquids stay clean and sensitive systems continue working well.

Parting Thoughts

This article teaches us how magnificent these high TG Rigid PCBs are. But remember that high TG Rigid PCBs need expertise and experience to ensure precision and top quality. So, it's really important to choose the right printed circuit board manufacturers. We suggest going for those who offer custom prototypes and one-time deliveries for your PCB needs.

Ready to Elevate Your PCB Projects to New Heights?

At GlobalWellPCBA, we’re not just experts in PCB assembly and fabrication; we're your partners in innovation and success.

Our commitment to quality, efficiency, and unparalleled customer service has supported countless projects across diverse industries, ensuring they meet their goals with the highest standards.

Don’t let PCB challenges slow you down. Whether you're in the military, medical, power, or commercial sectors, our seasoned team is here to provide tailored solutions that fit your unique needs.

From rapid prototyping to high-volume production, we have the expertise and capabilities to bring your ideas to life precisely and quickly.

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